Amalivaca, el Dios de las aguas.

“Todos somos hijos de uno y aunque tenemos colores diversos, descendemos de un solo hombre. El sol abrasador, las fatigas y la penosa vida nos han disminuido. Somos ya humo blanco, blanco, como el vestido de Amalivacá”.

En nuestra literatura nacional, muy poco se ha tratado o hablado sobre los mitos de los aborígenes que habitaban nuestro actual territorio antes de la colonización. Filippo Salvatore Gilij, un Padre Jesuita nacido en Italia, logró una de las pocas memorias sobre aquellas tribus, llegando a dominar la lengua caribe y el maipure. En 1768, desterrados los jesuitas, tuvo que dejar atrás sus diccionarios y relatos de los nativos. De su memoria y obra, hoy podemos rescatar uno de los mitos de los tamanacos, grupo que hacía vida en las riveras del Orinoco y descendiente de la lengua caribe.  El mito de Amalivacá, que según la investigación de Gilij y Humboldt,  se ve repetida entre varias tribus que convivían cerca del Orinoco,  siendo parecidas a  las nativas de Brasil como Amaliauág y los Macusi, quienes relatan sobre el diluvio y Macunaíma.

La edad de las aguas

Cuentan, según las antiguas tribus que vivían en la rivera del Orinoco, que el mundo estaba dividido en tres planos, el superior, donde moraban los Dioses como el sol; el medio donde los hombres convivían con los animales y las plantas; y el inferior, bajo la tierra y el agua,  donde moraban los muertos, demonios y animales subacuáticos.

Lalikilpará, una anaconda que vivía bajo la profundidad acuática, llena de ira por el comportamiento de los hombres, descargó su furia contra el plano medio. Sobre la tierra caían rayos que derribaban los árboles; los ríos se desbordaron tras un diluvio que arrasó con animales, hombres y plantas. Solo las montañas sirvieron de refugio, sobreviviendo tan solo unos pocos. Cuando la lluvia cesó, los supervivientes carecían de alimento y vivienda, todo lo que conocían había sido arrastrado por la ira de Lalikilpará.

Amalivaca

Los hombres decidieron pedir ayuda a los dioses del plano superior, hasta que después de un largo tiempo, vieron a lo lejos a un sujeto que se acercaba en una canoa; era Amalivaca, un hombre blanco, vestido, que junto a su hija y su hermano, Uochi, navegaba por aquellas aguas. Los hermanos tenían la misión de repoblar al mundo y al llegar pintaron sobre la roca Tepeumereme, las figuras del Sol y la Luna, ubicándose luego en Maita.  Sobre la tierra regaron la semilla del moriche y de la ella nacieron hombres y mujeres que fueron repoblando la tierra; crearon los ríos, para que las aguas desembocaran en el mar, trajeron de nuevo a los animales, las plantas y ayudaron a cultivar la tierra de los nativos.  Para concluir la obra, Amalivaca tocó su tambor, una enorme roca a la que se conoce como Chamburai.

Al tiempo. sobre el Orinoco, los hombres pidieron a los hermanos que hicieran que el río viajara en dos direcciones para así poder transportarse con facilidad. Esta petición generó largas discusiones entre los hermanos, pero al final se decidió no hacerlo, los hombres debían aprender a trabajar.

Las Hijas de Amalivaca

En Maita, junto a su hermano Uochi y sus dos hijas, se instaló durante un largo período, Amalivaca. Ellas tenían un espíritu nómada, amaban viajar y conocer nuevos lugares, por lo que esperaban irse pronto de aquel lugar. El padre tenía otro plan para ellas, ayudar a repoblar el territorio, y al ver su intención decidieron partir antes de lo previsto. Amalivaca, que era sabio, se dio cuenta de las intenciones de sus hijas y se les adelantó, rompió sus rodillas para que ya no pudieran viajar y así, tuvieron que cumplir con los deseos del padre.

La separación

Las tierras volvieron a ser fértiles, las aguas recuperaron su torrente, los hombres volvieron a ser numerosos y los animales volvían a vivir en armonía. El tiempo de Amalivaca con los orinoquenses había culminado. El día de la despedida, sonó el chamburai, y la voz de Amalivaca resonó entre todos los hombres que le rodeaban, —uopicachetpe—, mudarán únicamente la piel, afirmó con gran satisfacción. Así como él y su hermano, había decretado que todos los hombres vivirían para siempre y que mudarían la piel para rejuvenecer. Todos se mostraron sorprendidos y una anciana, al escuchar aquella palabra, no pudo contener su incredulidad, dudó de Amalivaca. Al ver aquella reacción, enfurecido y decepcionado gritó con autoridad —mattageptchi—, morirán, y así, cuentan qué se decidió la vida finita de los hombres sobre la tierra.

Amalivaca tomó su canoa y se embarcó hacia el otro lado del mar, al lugar donde viajan las almas de los que perecen, lejos de los hombres para no volver.

Notas sobre el mito

Este mito ha variado desde su registro más antiguo, con el Padre Gilij, pasando por Humboldt y Aristides Rojas, incluso a ser parte importante de la novela Canaima de Enrique Bernardo Núñez. Esta es una interpretación realizada por la recolección del conocimiento heredado por estos hombres que dedicaron su tiempo a estudiar a nuestros nativos.

No se pretende exaltar a una civilización extinta ni juzgar a los conquistadores, ambos fueron hijos de su época y actuaron de acuerdo a sus creencias; ambos fueron crueles en la guerra, entre su propia gente y con los externos, obedeciendo al contexto en que vivían. Más que juzgar, es dar a conocer que no solo las civilizaciones como la Azteca, Maya e Inca, desarrollaron creencias, mitos y pasado histórico; nuestros nativos tenían un imaginario, costumbres y formas que han sido poco difundidas. Los tamanacos, a diferencia de las culturas del norte y del sur, según la observación del P. Gilij, no eran idólatras cuando se les compara; creían en el sol como ente superior, pero no veían a Amalivaca como un Dios como afirmó el Jesuita:

“De Amalivacá, los tamanacos hablan como de un hombre que estuvo con ellos en Maita, dicen que andaba vestido, que era blanco, y cosas semejantes, no convenientes a quien los creó, sino a quien los llevó el primero a aquellos lugares. Por lo contrario, la formación del mundo, la de ellos mismos, y del Orinoco, etc., son proezas de divinidad”.

Allá siguen. en nuestra región guayanesa está el tepemereme donde quedan registradas las figuras del Sol y la Luna, que dicen fueron obra de Amalivaca. Algunos cuentan que al irse predijo el fin de los tamanacos, que solo tuvo una hija y que se fue por decepción, al ver que los hombres volvían a pelearse.

Manuel de Braganza

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